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This course (EDTECH 522) has exposed me to several pedagogical concepts especially relevant to adult learners. Most notably is the concept of Andragogy by Malcom Knowles which related to psychological and educational theories such as progressivism, naturalism, constructivism, problem-based learning and motivation. Andragogy posits several key learning attributes of adult learners such as: Need to know; Self-Concept; Experience; Readiness to learn; Orientation to learning and; Motivation to learn.
Although these key attributes are useful, it is instructive that the approach used for instruction should still consider the levels of self-directness, motivation, and experience of the individual learner.
Another concept which was relevant was that of the Community of Inquiry. The elements to create this community being cognitive presence, social presence and instructor presence were useful not only for adult learning but in any educational environment if learning outcomes are to be maximized.
One instructional approach that this course highlighted was the flipped classroom. Although, I have read about the flipped classroom and the concept of blended learning, it was interesting to read the real-life experiences of instructors in the course who have attempted the flipped classroom and blending a course. These have informed my opinion that the flipped classroom is an instructional strategy whereas blended learning is a model of delivery for instruction.
Regardless, research suggest there are educational gains from adopting such approaches and any good instructor would be wise to incorporate them within their instruction.
From the theories to concepts to approaches considered, any instruction should be evaluated. I was particularly interested in the various rubrics available for evaluating blended and online courses such as the Quality Matters and SREB rubrics.
These rubrics were shared with colleagues since the institution I work at is set to formally launch a blended learning policy initiative which promises to be transformative.
Throughout the course, I have created several artifacts which encompassed technological and pedagogical skills. The rich media tutorial and online module development were two such artifacts. The skills developed will prove useful in providing further support to my colleagues at the institution at which I work.
How did you use your understanding of Andragogy or adult learning theory in designing this lesson?
Andragogy is described by Malcolm Knowles (1992) as “a learner-centered approach to learning in which the adult learner determines the goals for learning and how they will be achieved.” The assumptions that describe the key attributes of adults such as their need to know, self-concept, experience, readiness to learn, orientation to learning, and motivation to learn were taken into consideration in the design of my lesson on Teaching and Learning with Multimedia.
The lesson was targeted towards course instructors at a higher-education institution who would be interested in utilizing the technological tools available to them to maximize teaching and learning. Instructors would bring a wealth of teaching experiences to the course, however, may have only been exposed in a limited way to the affordances of multimedia in teaching and learning.
Thus, the course was not designed solely as a hands-on tutorial showcasing the features of a particular tool but it provided a theoretical background on how the brain works and how multimedia principles can affect the brain leading to enhanced learning.
What instructional strategies you applied and how does your design address the cognitive, instructor and social presence?
The course was delivered as a blended online course being a mix of synchronous and asynchronous activities. Direct instruction was the primary teaching strategy employed facilitating interaction between instructor and learner, however, there was also ample opportunity for learners to interact amongst themselves.
The success of blended learning over fully online learning have convinced me that a more effective design approach is to utilize elements of synchronous communication for teaching at various points during the course, thus, a live online session using Zoom web-conferencing tool was included.
Web-conferencing can easily facilitate information exchange and allows for more dynamic communication due to immediate interaction, in the absence of any physical face-to-face interaction. The asynchronous elements of the course were intended to foster more in-depth thinking.
When combined as with my blended course, the synchronous and asynchronous elements developed a community of inquiry by facilitating cognitive, social and instructor presence and also reduced transactional distance.
Overall, what was the most difficult in creating this Moodle lesson?
The most difficult part of creating an online lesson is being consistent across all content that is created since learners may be viewing course material individually, information must be conveyed in a simple, accurate and concise manner.
How did you solve problems as they came up? What are your thoughts on online teaching now that you have created an online lesson? What was the most rewarding thing about this project?
I didn’t encounter any problems of a technical nature because I function as a support to faculty and the learning management system we use is Moodle – the same that was required for the assignment, however, knowing what is best practice to facilitate learners may lead to a course design that you constantly want to tinker with to improve but there is always the constraint of time.
For example, a typical online course must follow all the pedagogical aspects of having a goal and related objectives and ensuring that any activities and assessments align to the objectives. But that is only the first part of online teaching. You then require technological tools that can facilitate what you require from learners. But that is not the end. The principles of accessibility, multimedia learning, community of inquiry and andragogy (if you are teaching adults) still have to be considered. This is considerably more difficult in an online environment as opposed to a face-to-face environment.
However, it is rewarding to see how all the elements of your course fit together like pieces to a puzzle and be finally ready for delivery to learners.
This module grabbed my interest as it explored the elements that form a community of inquiry, those being cognitive presence, social presence and instructor presence in an online setting.
Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2001) describes cognitive presence as “the extent to which the participants in any particular configuration of a community of inquiry are able to construct meaning through sustained communication.”
In my opinion, cognitive presence results from the various interactions that go beyond surface learning. This occurs if critical thinking is required and thus instructors should provide activities that lead to such.
I view social presence as providing a safe environment for cognitive presence to occur. In a safe environment, divergent views are encouraged amongst learners.
Both cognitive presence and social presence need the ever-important instructor. Therefore, instructor presence is critical as a facilitator of cognitive and social presence not only by providing the tools and activities that encourage social and cognitive presence but by the various instructor-learner interactions.
Since this course is focused on online learning, instructors will be well-served if there is harmony in the elements of the community of inquiry their course.
Many tools were presented by colleagues that can be used to enhance these elements to varying degrees.
I was quite attracted by the uniqueness of the presentations on Virtual Worlds especially Second Life.
From the View-Master to the Oculus Rift, virtual reality seems to be an innovative strategy to be used in education. When coupled with virtual worlds, learners may no longer need to imagine things but may be immersed in virtual environments that can provide experiences that otherwise would not be possible.
As technology changes, so too would our expectations of their affordances. If we were to cast our minds back to when Personal Computers became popular, maybe a basic text editor like Notepad and a floppy diskette could have been regarded as tools to allow for collaboration amongst learners thereby enhancing cognitive presence. At present such a tool would not even be mentioned to enhance any element in a community of inquiry. This should remind us that technological devices are merely tools to facilitate the underlying pedagogy.
Question 1 & 2
What are the primary criticisms of andragogy and where do you stand on the issue(s)?
Summarize the six key assumptions about adult learners as described by Malcolm Knowles and discuss their implications for teaching adult learners online.
Andragogy, as defined by Malcolm Knowles, is the art and science of helping adults learn. This contrast with pedagogy which Knowles defined as the art and science of teaching children. For Knowles, this was a fundamental distinction between pedagogy and andragogy.
Knowles developed four (4) principles and six (6) key assumptions about andragogy.
Four (4) Principles of Andragogy
Knowles suggested four (4) principles that are applicable to andragogy.
- Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction.
- Experience (including mistakes) provides the basis for the learning activities.
- Adults are most interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance and impact to their job or personal life.
- Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented.
Six (6) Key Assumptions about Adult Learners
Knowles’ posited six (6) assumptions about adult learners to support his theory of andragogy. These were:
Self-concept: adults tend to resist situations in which they feel that others are imposing their wills on them.
Experience: adults tend to come into adult education with a vast and rich amount of prior experience compared to that of children.
Readiness to learn: adults’ readiness to learn is oriented to the development task of his/her social roles given the topic is relevant.
Orientation to learn: adults are motivated to the extent in which they perceive that the knowledge in which they are acquiring will help them perform a task or solve a problem in real life.
Motivation to learn: Adults are mostly driven by internal motivation and the desire for self-esteem and goal attainment.
The need to know: adults need to know the reason for learning something.
Implications for Teaching Adults Online
The assumptions made by Knowles about adult learners may be used as an instructional design guide for online courses.
The online community, eLearning Industry, suggests that online courses can be designed to “create learning experiences that offer minimum instruction and maximum autonomy” which is consistent with the self-concept assumption. A major aspect of designing adult online courses is by having an online support system to offer guidance and help, while still giving the online tools and resources they need to learn on their own terms. Adult learners acquire new information and build upon existing knowledge much more effectively if they are encouraged to explore a topic on their own.
Assumption 2 of Knowles assumption can be met in an online course by including a wide range of instructional design models and theories to appeal to varied experience levels and backgrounds. Since adult learners are more mature, it is presumed that they have had more time to cultivate life experience and typically have a wider knowledge base.
That means that you’ll have to take into account that your adult learning audience is going to be more diverse, especially in terms of backgrounds, experience levels, and skill sets. While one adult learner may be well versed on how to search for resources online, another may have very little experience using the Internet.
Applying Assumption 3 to the online environment can be as simple as including Web 2.0 tools to better facilitate collaboration for any deliverable in a course. Since the assumption presumes there is a readiness to learn, in an online environment adults may challenge themselves with learning Web 2.0 tools which may be new to them once it promotes learning community.
Assumption 4 can be applied to online learning by “emphasizing how the subject matter is going to solve problems that an adult learner regularly encounters.” In an online environment, activities should be given that allows adults to solve problems they encounter on a regular basis and should not be of abstract value.
Assumption 5 and 6 are interrelated when the online environment is considered. Since adults are expected to be motivated, there should provide a valid reason why each online module, online activity or assessment is included. This should also be communicated to adults.
Criticisms of Andragogy
Merriam et al. (2007) criticizes Knowles theory because it lacked the fundamental characteristics of a science since it could not be measured. In fact, researcher Pratt (1993) concluded that “they could not say with any confidence that andragogy has been tested and found to be the basis for a theory of adult learning or a unifying concept for adult education.”
Secondly, Rachel (2002) noted that there was an absence of a clear meaning of what constituted andragogical practice given there are so many different instructional methodologies/techniques.
Another criticism of Andragogy is based on his characteristic assumptions of adult learners. Not all adults will exhibit the assumptions that Knowles listed. Some adults will be self-directed learners and some will be highly dependent on the teacher. This also occurs in children so there isn’t any distinct difference between adults and children based on Knowles’ assumptions.
In my opinion, the assumptions of Andragogy as outlined by Knowles should be more appropriately defined as a set of guidelines that should be followed when designing instruction. Regardless of the age of the learner, these guidelines should be applied.
Therefore, I do not agree that andragogy is a different from pedagogy. Effective instruction does not have delineations based on age, and should take into consideration the needs of the learners which is provided in the goals and objectives of any well-developed instructional unit.
Knowles, M. (1984). The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species (3rd Ed.). Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing.
Knowles, M. (1984). Andragogy in Action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
The screencast was a tutorial for faculty who wanted to use the Flipped Classroom approach and wanted to provide videos for students to view before coming to class. Faculty were exposed to two techniques to accomplish this using Moodle.
Technique 1 was by uploading a video file from their computer using Moodle’s File resource and Technique 2 was by using a link to a YouTube video using Moodle’s URL resource.
Although the video is approximately six (6) minutes in duration, the two techniques followed the segmenting principle and included title clips for each technique, effectively making each video three (3) minutes long. This is in keeping with research on screencast videos which revealed that after 6 minutes, viewers started to lose interest.
Faculty were then urged to use one of the techniques to provide a video to students for their Flipped Classroom.
The screencast video was produced using Camtasia. It was not difficult to use since I have experience using it, but regardless it is a time consuming process to edit since mistakes are made even if you have a complete narration of what you intend to say.
Link to screencast video is HERE.
e-ducator podcast series
The e-ducator podcast series presents an informative and educational discussion on things related to education.
It provides an avenue for education stakeholders to have a voice and also learn about things educational.
In episode 1, we discussed the Flipped Classroom as an innovative and trending approach to teaching and learning.
Listen to the podcast HERE.
You can also download a copy of the transcript HERE.
AECT Standard 3 (Learning Environments) states that “Candidates facilitate learning by creating, using, evaluating, and managing effective learning environments.”
Indicator 6 of AECT Standard 3 refers to Diversity of Learners as “Candidates foster a learning community that empowers learners with diverse backgrounds, characteristics, and abilities”.
By creating a transcript of the audio file, the AECT standard 3, indicator 6 is being adhered to. This allows for learners who may have hearing challenges to still benefit form the educational content of the podcast series.
The Web Accessibility in Mind organization also suggests transcription as a means to create accessible content. As educators, this is very important as we comply with Section 508 and provide learners with optimal condition for learning despite diverse learning styles (preferences).
The short video created is a digital story reflecting on my experience doing course edtech513 – Multimedia Learning at Boise state University.
It adheres to the Personalization principle of Multimedia Learning by using a conversational tone and using the first person singular grammatical voice.
To provide a human face to the voice, my photo was shown briefly at the start of the digital story. This would not have distracted from any thing that was instructionally relevant but sought to provide a real image of the person telling the story.
What is the Coherence Principle and its most important constraints/criteria?
The Coherence Principle is one of the principles of the cognitive theory of multimedia learning developed by Richard Mayer which is aimed at reducing extraneous processing in multimedia learning.
The overarching theme of the Coherence Principle is that people better understand an explanation from a multimedia lesson containing essential material (concise lesson) than from a multimedia lesson containing essential material and additional material (expanded lesson) (Mayer, 2010).
Three (3) hypotheses have been used to justify the Coherence Principle:
- “Learning is improved when interesting but irrelevant words and pictures are excluded from a multimedia presentation.”
- “Learning is improved when interesting but irrelevant sounds and music are excluded from a multimedia presentation.”
- “Learning is improved when unneeded words and symbols are eliminated from a multimedia presentation.”
These three hypotheses provide us with general guidelines that should be followed by creators of multimedia content for learning also called e-Lessons. These guidelines are:
- Avoid e-Lessons with extraneous graphics
- Avoid e-Lessons with extraneous audio
- Avoid e-Lessons with extraneous words
Mayer (2010) provides the rationale for the Coherence Principle that “extraneous material competes for cognitive resources in working memory and can divert attention from the important material, disrupt the process of organizing the material, and prime the learner to integrate the material with an appropriate theme.”
The known constraint identified for the Coherence principle is that it may be particularly important for learners with low-working-memory capacity or low domain knowledge. This is useful to creators of e-Lessons who seek to cater for diverse learning abilities.
Describe and/or include one example of successful and one example of unsuccessful attempts to apply the Coherence Principle in actual instruction and training you have experienced, especially as it might be implemented in PowerPoint-based instruction and training.
Have you ever seen this principle violated or abused? Identify the violations, including citations as needed from your textbook.
PowerPoint has become an almost indelible teaching aid amongst educators. Several design templates available in the versions of PowerPoint released between years 1995 through 2000 allowed users to create colourful presentations.
It was commonplace to see textual content and graphical content appearing on the same slide. As a means to allow PowerPoint to serve as a presentation and handout notes to learners, slides were often overloaded with textual content.
The novelty of animations and sound effect often led to an overuse of these features as students including myself were fascinated at the power of PowerPoint. However, the novelty of PowerPoint wore off and continued use of the dazzling features of animations and sounds became a distraction to learning.
In this regard, I have experience the worst of training during the early part of the 21st century with PowerPoint. Today (year 2016), the default templates available in the most recent versions of PowerPoint are less confusing/cluttered and the colour schemes are well-designed.
Trainers/Presenters have followed suit and content used on PowerPoint slides normally follow the basic guidelines for creating PowerPoint presentations.
No longer are animations and sound effects the primary focus of the presentation since most presenters recognize now that PowerPoint is to be used as an aid to presenting or teaching and not as a replacement for presenting or teaching.
There is therefore greater adherence to the coherence principle as presenters/trainers have noticeably made an effort when using PowerPoint to “limit extraneous graphics, sounds and words” as suggested by Richard Mayer.
Discuss the relationship of the Coherence Principle to other Multimedia Learning Principles examined thus far in your readings.
The theory of multimedia learning is based on three (3) key assumptions:
- Dual channels – humans process separate channels for processing visual and auditory information
- Limited capacity – humans are limited in the amount of information that they can process in each channel at one time
- Active processing – humans engage in active learning by attending to relevant incoming information, organizing selected information into coherent mental representations, and integrating mental representations with other knowledge.
These assumptions relate to the mental effort (cognitive processing) required for learning to occur efficiently. The main guidelines to be followed from these assumptions are to:
- Reduce extraneous cognitive processing
- Foster generative cognitive processing
- Manage essential cognitive processing
The Coherence Principle adheres to the guideline of reducing extraneous cognitive processing primarily by avoiding the use of extraneous material from multimedia lessons.
Other principles such as the redundancy principle, spatial contiguity principle and modality principle also adhere to these guidelines.
With respect to the Redundancy Principle the guideline of managing essential cognitive processing is adhered to as it states that people learn better from graphics and narration than from graphics, narration and printed text.
The Spatial contiguity principle states that students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen.
The rationale behind this principle is that when corresponding words and picture are near to each other on the page or screen, learners do not have to use cognitive resources to visually search the page or screen, and learners are more likely to be able to hold them both in working memory at the same time.
Similar to the coherence principle, the spatial contiguity principle is aimed at reducing extraneous cognitive processing and managing essential cognitive processing.
The Modality principle states that people learn more deeply from pictures and spoken words than from pictures and printed words. Therefore, if a multimedia lesson contains pictures and printed words, an overload can be caused in the visual system. The guideline of managing essential cognitive processing is therefore applicable with the modality principle.
In some multimedia lessons, it may not be possible to avoid all extraneous material. In this case, the signaling principle should be followed. This is done by inserting cues in the multimedia lesson to direct the learner’s attention toward the essential material.
Discuss the relationship of the Coherence Principle to fundamental theories of psychology as described by Clark & Mayer in your textbook.
The Coherence principle emanates from the theory of multimedia learning which is based on cognitive psychology of learning and is centered around the theory of knowledge construction.
Knowledge construction posits that learners build mental representations based on what is presented and what they already know (Mayer, 2010).
Arguments against the Coherence principle are often presented using arousal theory – the idea that students learn better when they are emotionally aroused by material (Clark & Mayer, 2011). This is a theory for motivation where the addition of interesting but irrelevant material can serve the purpose of energizing learners so that they pay more attention and learn more overall.
Although arousal theory seems plausible, its genesis is in the behaviorist psychology of learning developed by B.F Skinner and is centered around knowledge transmission which asserts that learning involves taking information from the teacher and putting it into the learner.
The Coherence Principle does not support the arousal theory since it (coherence principle) makes the assumption that seductive details serving to arouse learners may interfere with the process of knowledge construction and reduce learning.
What do you personally like or dislike about this principle? Present a coherent, informed opinion and explain why you hold this opinion.
Are there any limitations or qualifications of the principle (caveats) which the authors did not consider and, if so, what are they?
The Cognitive theory of multimedia learning from which the Coherence Principle has been developed continues to evolve in terms of research. Since it is concerned with the brain – one of the most complex processes to understand about humans, there will be conditions that may prove or disprove the coherence principle.
The guideline of the coherence principle to avoid extraneous audio, words and pictures in order to facilitate efficient processing in working memory seems sensible, however, some learners may not be motivated enough to learn with such a focused approach.
Many lessons/instructional plans start with a set induction which seeks to grab learners’ attention and pique their interest for the instructional content to follow. For example, a set induction on how lightning storms develop may show a brief video clip of the fatal destruction and havoc storms have caused.
This may serve as the attention grabber for the students and a means by which they would want to learn how storms are developed and ultimately how they are able to cause this destruction.
Structuring a lesson with ‘needle-point’ focus on the science behind storms may be abstract and not interesting to learners who otherwise have no interest in storms. The set induction in this case is therefore supported by arousal theory.
Furthermore, if the learner is able to see real-world examples of storms and their destruction, it might be a means by which learning by making connections can be facilitated although the lesson is on the science of storms and not its destruction.
In relation to avoiding extraneous audio, an argument can be posited that audio can serve as a means of signaling to learners. If we consider a television production, many sounds are used to evoke emotion and grab the attention of viewers. If such television productions serve the purpose of being educational, they should be categorized as e-lessons and therefore the Coherence principle should apply.
In this case, however, the coherence principle may need to be qualified or further investigated for its applicability. Our reflection as children and observation of children may not support the coherence principle since many television productions in the form of cartoons may contain extraneous audio.
Since the research to prove the Coherence Principle was conducted amongst college-aged students ranging in age from 18 to 22 years old (Clark & Mayer, 2011), further studies should be considered amongst other age demographics to ensure consistency and applicability of the Coherence Principle across all age groups.
Clark, R., & Mayer, R. (2011). e-Learning and the Science of Instruction (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Mayer, R. E. (2010). Multimedia Learning (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Haiku Deck presentation
My presentation looked at making lectures a space for active learning. Lectures by definition are a passive instructionist method of teaching as the Lecturer also called the “sage on stage” being the “only source of knowledge” delivers his instruction to students who fill their brain “vacuums” with this knowledge. Of course, there has been a paradigm shift towards constructivist approaches but the lecture still remains a popular method of instruction because of its economical value when physical resources and human resource capacity are limited.
Since there is a definite practical benefit (financial and otherwise) to the lecture, the Haiku Deck presentation suggests a tool that can be used to enhance the pedagogical value of the lecture. This can be done through the use of a Student Response System – a tool to facilitate active learning of students during the passive lecture.
The presentation then concludes by appealing to lecturers to attend workshops to gain the benefits of the potential of Student Response Systems.
Haiku Deck as a Tool (My Thoughts)
Haiku Deck suggests best practice for its use by “keeping it simple”, “making it beautiful”, and “having fun”. These suggestions are consistent with the Principles of Multimedia Learning by Richard Mayer, specifically, those principles related to reducing unnecessary content that can lead to extraneous cognitive processing and connecting with your audience vis-à-vis personalization principle.
This is my third time using the free version of Haiku Deck and although the tool is commendable, I still remain a MS PowerPoint advocate because of its wider range of features. I view Haiku Deck as a cheese-only pizza being sold for the same price as MS PowerPoint, the pizza with all the garnishes.
My preference is to buy the pizza with all the garnishes and remove unwanted garnishes until I am left with a cheese-only pizza rather than buy a cheese-only pizza.
This is not to discredit Haiku Deck but with the recent addition of Office Mix for PowerPoint, which ultimately makes programs such as Haiku Deck, Google Slides, Keynote and Camtasia struggle as a second place alternative, I prefer to remain with MS PowerPoint for now.
Multimedia Learning refers to learning from words, however, multimedia instruction refers to the presentation of material using both words and pictures, with the intention of promoting learning (Mayer, 2010).
This post was made to showcase an example of static multimedia instruction on Online polling using Socrative Quizzes.
The learners are Grade 10 teachers with a basic knowledge of the computers and Internet use.
After viewing the “How-To” Guide on Online Polling using Socrative Quizzes, learners (Grade 10 teachers) should be able to:
- Follow a series of steps to access to Socrative™ as a Teacher
- Follow a series of steps to create a poll using the multiple choice question type in Socrative™
How-To Guide/ Tutorial
The pdf document showcasing an example of multimedia instruction can be viewed HERE.
Process of Creating How-To Guide / Tutorial
The How-To Guide was completed using a trial version of the software Clarify™. This was my first experience using Clarify and I found it was intuitive. I have created How-To guides and tutorials before but I used a combination of Microsoft Word and Paint.
Clarify™ makes the process of taking and organizing screenshots quite easy by inserting the screenshots in the Clarify document which avoids the back and forth between applications.
The tutorial outlined the steps from registering an account through to publishing an online poll to students using Socrative. At each major step, Clarify was used to take screenshots using the Shift-Ctrl-2 key combination and automatically the screenshots were organized in the Clarify document.
Clarify™ also has a basic editing tool to include annotations such as arrows or step numbers which were used to highlight a particular item, field or button on Socrative.
After annotating my screenshots, I exported to Microsoft Word because I wanted to use my own pre-defined styles for headings and not what was available in Clarify™. Headings used a gerund naming convention deliberately to convey an active and involved learning approach when using the How-To/Tutorial Guide.
I then exported the MS Word version of the How-To Guide to Adobe PDF format.
The How-To guide had to be re-done because Socrative made a complete change to their interface on July 10, 2016 on the launch of Socrative Pro (paid) version. As a result, I had to replace existing screenshots but this was easily accomplished with Clarify™.
Thoughts on Clarify™
Clarify is an easy tool to use especially for taking and annotating screenshots and can meet my needs in the future for the most part. I did not notice a feature to easily erase a part of the screen shot and re-color the erased part using a fill feature. I also did not notice a color picker which is useful in re-coloring.
Re-coloring is sometimes useful if you want to display a screenshot that is unobstructed, clean and clear of unwanted items.
The Multimedia Principle recommends that words and supporting graphics be used to support learning rather than text alone.
The How-To/Tutorial Guide presented a step-wise process of screenshots leading to the end result which was publishing a poll. The screenshots were obtained to support the textual instructions of the steps.
Steps were succinct to reduce essential cognitive processing. The screenshots used were strategically included cognizant of the learners who were new to Socrative. The combination of text and graphics seemed most appropriate for the learners.
In its simplest form, the Contiguity Principle recommends that words should be aligned to corresponding graphics.
The How-To/Tutorial Guide satisfied the principle as far as was practicable by positioning textual words near to the screenshots.
Excessive annotations on the screenshots were deliberately avoided to avoid a confusing or cluttered screenshot.